- DAIRY COW FARM (milk production) -

General description.

Dairy cows are approximately 252 million animals worldwide and the annual production of cow's milk is around 583 million tonnes worldwide (FAO, 2011). Milk production facilities established and operated outside living quarters (on greenfield) and they meet the national standards for the protection of animals kept for farming purposes. Milk production is done with intensive farming and specialized animal material of Holstein breed, that won the preference of producers for its high milk production (productive life duration 2.3 years), which is on average higher than any other cow breed. A mature Holstein cow typically weighs 580 kg and has a height of 147 cm, with an annual milk yield of 8,000 to 11,000 kg / year.

Farming systems.

A vertically integrated farm of intensive cow breeding for milk production has the multi-level structure as follows:
The animals are kept in groups, the composition of which is determined by an algorithm that uses the average daily milk production, stage of pregnancy, the weight and age of the animal. At this level parts and equipment which support the process of livestock breeding are installed such as:
* Stables with separate residential positions for each animal.
* Yard for the traffic of animals.
* Feeding equipment with pneumatic transport-distribution in animal positions.
* Solid and liquid waste handling equipment for transportation out of building.
* Animal transport ramp to milking parlors.
At this level parts and equipment which support milk processing are installed such as:
* Rotary milking parlor.
* Milk processing line (processing-packaging technique).
* Cheese factory.
* Transport ramp for animals transportation in stables.
* Ramp vehicles to support rearing.
At this level parts and equipment which support cows rearing process and milk processing are installed such as:
* Silos for dry food storage.
* Hydroponic fresh fodder production system.
* Electricity production equipment (generators).
* Containers for fresh water storage.
* Containers for fuel storage.
* Tanks for liquid waste storage.
* Tunnels for solid waste storage.
* Air handling equipment (fans, vents, filters).
At this level parts and equipment supporting the management processes and control of the unit are installed such as:
* Offices of administrative services.
* Veterinary laboratory.

Commercial products.

The milk processing section produces products with the highest standards in the international food industry. The products produced are as follows:
* Milk.
* Cheese.
* Yoghurt.
* Ice cream.


Made of lightweight and high strength materials, with emphasis on usability, the structures of dairy cow farm are developed in floors giving the ability to public have a closer view of unit’s activities.